Marc Wäckerlin
Für eine libertäre Schweiz

Evaluation of Distributed Filesystems for Docker Swarm

January 5, 2018

This blog documents my way to find a decent distributed replicated filesystem for hosting docker swarm volumes. It is a work in progress. I started this evaluation, because GlusterFS is incredingly slow.

Current result: XtreemFS is 40× faster with a simple ls than GlusterFS, but it is unstable. Testing LizardFS, which looks quite good by now.

Setup

There are four servers:

  • universum (8 GB RAM, 8 TB HDD, 1,7 GHz Intel Xeon with 8 Cores)
    • docker: swarm master node
    • storage: master node
  • urknall (16 GB RAM, 18 TB HDD, 1,3 GHz AMD Athlon with 2 Cores)
    • docker: swarm client node
    • storage: client node, replicates
  • pulsar (16 GB RAM, 17 TB HDD, 800 MHz AMD Athlon with 2 Cores)
    • docker: swarm client node (not yet)
    • storage: client node, replicates
  • raum (8 GB RAM, 21 TB HDD, 2,3 GHz Intel Celeron with 2 Cores)
    • docker: swarm client node
    • storage: client node, replicates

The servers universum, urknall and pulsar are on a 1GB ethernet switch with a short 0,5m cat6 cable. Server raum is in another room, connected through powerline (Devolo dLAN 1200+).

The two servers universum and urknall build a docker swarm, that starts containers on any of the servers, so they must have access to a shared file system.

Results

Filesystem Installation Performance Documentation Result
GlusterFS simple in theory, unstable in practice extremely poor, unusable poor, outdated, wrong, hidden do not use
Minio unknown
  • server: rudimentary but correct
  • client: missing overall view
complete failure
XtreemeFS simpel, besides some problems much faster than GlusterFS basics good, except for replication do not use – unstable, processes crash, recovery does not work
LizardFS very easy faster than XtreemeFS very good, very clear

Performance

Tested on a file system with the identical amount of 6,4 GB of data (according to du -hs).

Filesystem ls /root/dir du -hs /root/dir
Native  0,002s  0,758s
GlusterFS 8,746s 2h 31min 17,543s
XtreemFS 0,202s 32,756s
LizarfdFS 0,004s 2,585s

Details

Minio

Unfortunately, Minio / s3fs is not POSIX compliant, so it cannot be used in docker volumes. Minio can be used only, if the application natively implements AWS S3 API. Docker volume drivers do not.

Server Installation

According to the official documentation:

  1. create a docker secret for secret and access key:
    echo "AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE" | docker secret create access_key -
    echo "wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY" | docker secret create secret_key -
  2. create direcrories for local docker volumes to store minio data on both servers universum and urknall:
    sudo mkdir -p /var/lib/minio/disk{1,2}
  3. deploy this yaml file:
    version: '3.3'
    
    services:
    
      minio1:
        image: minio/minio
        ports:
          - 9001:9000
        volumes:
          - type: bind
            source: /var/lib/minio/disk1
            target: /data
        command: server http://minio1/data http://minio2/data http://minio3/data http://minio4/data
        secrets:
          - secret_key
          - access_key
        deploy:
          placement:
            constraints:
              - node.hostname == universum  
    
      minio2:
        image: minio/minio
        ports:
          - 9002:9000
        volumes:
          - type: bind
            source: /var/lib/minio/disk2
            target: /data
        command: server http://minio1/data http://minio2/data http://minio3/data http://minio4/data
        secrets:
          - secret_key
          - access_key
        deploy:
          placement:
            constraints:
              - node.hostname == universum  
    
      minio3:
        image: minio/minio
        ports:
          - 9003:9000
        volumes:
          - type: bind
            source: /var/lib/minio/disk1
            target: /data
        command: server http://minio1/data http://minio2/data http://minio3/data http://minio4/data
        secrets:
          - secret_key
          - access_key
        deploy:
          placement:
            constraints:
              - node.hostname == urknall
    
      minio4:
        image: minio/minio
        ports:
          - 9004:9000
        volumes:
          - type: bind
            source: /var/lib/minio/disk2
            target: /data
        command: server http://minio1/data http://minio2/data http://minio3/data http://minio4/data
        secrets:
          - secret_key
          - access_key
        deploy:
          placement:
            constraints:
              - node.hostname == urknall
    
    secrets:
      access_key:
        external: true
      secret_key:
        external: true
  4. head the browser to http://universum:9001, log in with the secrets, create buckets and files in the buckets as expected

Client Installation

There are basically two options: Mount a bucket into the operating system using fuse or use a docker volume plugin. for bosth you need to apt install s3fs.

Fuse s3fs

Follow the instructions to install rexray:

  1. install the debian package;
    curl -sSL https://dl.bintray.com/emccode/rexray/install | sh
  2. create the configuration in /etc/rexray/config.yml:
    sudo tee /etc/rexray/config.yml <<EOF
    libstorage:
      service: s3fs
    s3fs:
      accessKey: AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE
      secretKey: wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY
      endpoint: http://universum:9001
      region: us-east-1
      disablePathStyle: false
      options:
      - url=http://universum:9001
      - use_path_request_style
      - allow_other
      - nonempty
    EOF
  3. start service:
    sudo systemctl enable rexray
    sudo systemctl start rexray
  4. create a bucket, e.g. testbucket:
    sudo rexray volume new testbucket
  5. mount the test bucket:
    sudo rexray volume mount testbucket

Now I can create files in /var/lib/rexray/volumes/testbucket, that appear also in the Minio Browser in the web, and I can see a copy of the files on server urknall, so the replication works as expected.

Unfortunately, s3fs does not support full POSIX standard, even worse: it is not possible to create subdirectories, so sudo mkdir /var/lib/rexray/volumes/testbucket/test fails.

Result: Not usable for docker volumes.

Volume plugin

The original project minio/minifs is deprecated. Plugin rexray/s3fs is recommended instead. First problem, installation of docker volume plugin rexray/s3fs fails sometimes, then it passes, so it is very unpredictable.

Installation command: docker plugin install rexray/s3fs S3FS_OPTIONS="url=http://universum:9001" S3FS_ENDPOINT="http://universum:9001" S3FS_ACCESSKEY="AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE" S3FS_SECRETKEY="wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY" --alias s3fs

Next, let’s try to use the plugin in a simple docker volume:

marc@universum:~$ docker volume create --driver s3fs newvol
newvol
marc@universum:~$ docker run -it --rm --volume newvol:/data ubuntu bashroot@05ff1576f1d1:/# ls /data
root@05ff1576f1d1:/# echo "this is a test" > /data/test1
root@05ff1576f1d1:/# cat /data/test1
this is a test
root@05ff1576f1d1:/# exit

So far it works as expected, and I can even create directories, but the file test1 does not appear in bucket newvol on the Minio Browser. Even worse, when I try to run a new container with the same bucket, it constantly fails:

marc@universum:~$ docker run -it --rm --volume newvol:/data ubuntu bash
docker: Error response from daemon: error while mounting volume '/var/lib/docker/plugins/1da4e15929fc167acf5a8cc8c84c0e611b130b503081fdd828e6c8ef3ec0c3bb/rootfs': VolumeDriver.Mount: docker-legacy: Mount: newvol: failed: error mounting s3fs bucket.

I didn’t get help in the chat, nor from google.

Result: Complete failure.

XtreemeFS

When I added MSC and DIR replication, everything became unstable and started blocking. Finally, all data were lost. It does not seem to be stable enough for production environment storing important data. Processes often stop and remain in status active (exited), the service does not restart, but even if it is restarted, it fails again and again with logs such as «Currently there is a failover in progress. Please try again later». But even hours, the services still do not start.

So I cannot recommend it.

Installation

Install the repository and the software (use unstable):

sudo apt-add-repository "deb http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/home:/xtreemfs/xUbuntu_16.04 ./"
wget -q http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/home:/xtreemfs:/unstable/xUbuntu_16.04/Release.key -O - | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install xtreemfs-client xtreemfs-server xtreemfs-tools

Define your servers in the following variables, the master server is the first one:

REPL=( universum urknall raum )
num=${#REPL[*]}
Basic

Follow the simple instructions, on all servers:

for f in /etc/xos/xtreemfs/*.properties; do
  sudo sed -i 's,.*\(listen\.address *= *\).*,\1'"$(hostname -I | cut -d' ' -f1)"',' $f
  sudo sed -i 's,.*\(hostname *= *\).*,\1'"$(hostname)"',' $f
  sudo sed -i 's,\( *dir_service\.host *= *\).*,\1'"$(hostname)"',' $f
  sudo sed -i 's,.*\(startup\.wait_for_dir *= *\).*,\186400,' $f
done
sudo sed -i 's,.*\(dir_service\.host *= *\).*,\1'"$(hostname)"',' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/default_dir
sudo sed -i "/$(hostname)/d" /etc/hosts
Redundabt MRC

On all hosts (start with the master server):

sudo sed -i 's,.*\(babudb\.sync *= * \).*,\1FDATASYNC,' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/mrcconfig.properties
sudo sed -i 's,.*\(babudb\.repl\.localhost *= * \).*,\1'"$(hostname)"',' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/server-repl-plugin/mrc.properties
sudo sed -i 's,.*\(babudb\.repl\.sync\.n *= *\).*,\1'$(((num+2)/2))',' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/server-repl-plugin/mrc.properties
sudo sed -i '/babudb\.repl\.participant\.[0-9]/d' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/server-repl-plugin/mrc.properties
for ((i=0; i<num; ++i)); do
  sudo tee -a /etc/xos/xtreemfs/server-repl-plugin/mrc.properties <<EOF
babudb.repl.participant.$((i)) = ${REPL[$i]}
babudb.repl.participant.$((i)).port = 35676
EOF
done
sudo sed -i 's,.*\(babudb\.plugin\.0 *= * .*\),\1,' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/mrcconfig.properties
Redundant DIR

On all hosts (start with the master server):

sudo sed -i 's,.*\(babudb\.sync *= * \).*,\1FDATASYNC,' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/dirconfig.properties
sudo sed -i 's,.*\(babudb\.repl\.localhost *= * \).*,\1'"$(hostname)"',' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/server-repl-plugin/dir.properties
sudo sed -i 's,.*\(babudb\.repl\.sync\.n *= *\).*,\1'$(((num+2)/2))',' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/server-repl-plugin/dir.properties
sudo sed -i '/babudb\.repl\.participant\.[0-9]/d' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/server-repl-plugin/dir.properties
for ((i=0; i<num; ++i)); do
  sudo tee -a /etc/xos/xtreemfs/server-repl-plugin/dir.properties <<EOF
babudb.repl.participant.$((i)) = ${REPL[$i]}
babudb.repl.participant.$((i)).port = 35678
EOF
done
for f in /etc/xos/xtreemfs/osdconfig.properties /etc/xos/xtreemfs/mrcconfig.properties; do
  sudo sed -i '/dir_service[0-9]\./d' $f
  for ((i=num-1; i>0; --i)); do
    sudo sed -i '/^dir_service\.port *=/adir_service'$i'.port = 32638' $f
    sudo sed -i '/^dir_service\.port *=/adir_service'$i'.host = '${REPL[$i]} $f
 done
done
sudo sed -i 's,.*\(babudb.plugin.0 *= * .*\),\1,' /etc/xos/xtreemfs/dirconfig.properties
Start

On all servers start up all services all at the same time (otherwise they crash after some minutes if the peers are not ready):

sudo systemctl enable xtreemfs-dir xtreemfs-mrc xtreemfs-osd
sudo systemctl start xtreemfs-dir xtreemfs-mrc xtreemfs-osd
Create Data Volume

On any server, create a new volume (execute it only once):

mkfs.xtreemfs -u root -g docker -m 770 -a POSIX –chown-non-root $(hostname)/volumes

Redundant OSD

For the new volume, enabled replication over all 4 hosts (execute it only once onb any server):

sudo xtfsutil --set-drp --replication-policy WqRq --replication-factor ${num} /var/xtreemfs
Mount Volume

On all servers, mount the volume:

sudo mkdir /var/xtreemfs
sudo sed -i '/'"$(hostname)"'.*volumes.*xtreemfs/d' /etc/fstab
sudo tee -a /etc/fstab <<EOF
$(srv=($(hostname) ${REPL[*]/$(hostname)}); IFS=,; echo "${srv[*]}")/volumes /var/xtreemfs xtreemfs defaults,_netdev,allow_other 0 0
EOF
sudo mount /var/xtreemfs

Tests

Next step: run docker volumes in /var/xtreemfs:

Uninstall

To completely uninstall XtreemFS, including removing all data, and permanentely loose everything, just call:

sudo umount /var/xtreemfs
sudo apt autoremove --purge xtreemfs-*
sudo rm -rf /etc/xos /var/xtreemfs /var/lib/xtreemfs

Problems

Java Version in xtfs_cleanup

The tool xtfs_cleanup does not run on Ubuntu 16.04. I reported a bug.

IP Address Mess

Mount from remote host fails, probably because my local DHCP / DNS does not support IPv6:

marc@pulsar:~$ sudo mount.xtreemfs universum/volumes /var/xtreemfs
[sudo] password for marc: 
[ E |  1/ 4 12:06:58.335 | 7f07fede2700   ] operation failed: call_id=1 errno=5 message=could not connect to host '2a02:168:6a39:0:f603:43ff:fefc:21bc:32636': No route to host 
[ E |  1/ 4 12:06:58.336 | 7f080783b740   ] Got no response from server 2a02:168:6a39:0:f603:43ff:fefc:21bc:32636 (3d1ef865-c7be-41d8-8837-640693ffdd12), retrying (infinite attempts left) (Possible reason: The server is using SSL, and the client is not.), waiting 12.0 more seconds till next attempt.
[ E |  1/ 4 12:07:13.335 | 7f07fede2700   ] operation failed: call_id=2 errno=5 message=could not connect to host '2a02:168:6a39:0:f603:43ff:fefc:21bc:32636': No route to host 
[ E |  1/ 4 12:07:28.339 | 7f07fede2700   ] operation failed: call_id=3 errno=5 message=could not connect to host '2a02:168:6a39:0:f603:43ff:fefc:21bc:32636': No route to host 
[ E |  1/ 4 12:07:43.339 | 7f07fede2700   ] operation failed: call_id=4 errno=5 message=could not connect to host '2a02:168:6a39:0:f603:43ff:fefc:21bc:32636': No route to host

There is a discussion on this, obviousely the problem is still not solved.

Note: The following step is not neccessary using the final solution of specifying all external IP adresses!

On server urknall, I run:

echo 1 | sudo tee /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/eno1/disable_ipv6
sudo systemctl restart xtreemfs-dir xtreemfs-mrc xtreemfs-osd

But there is still a problem:

marc@urknall:~$ sudo mount.xtreemfs universum/volumes /var/xtreemfs
[sudo] Passwort für marc: 
[ E |  1/ 4 13:03:32.533 | 7f6352ffd700   ] operation failed: call_id=1 errno=5 message=could not connect to host '172.18.0.1:32636': Connection refused 
[ E |  1/ 4 13:03:32.533 | 7f635b9b4740   ] Got no response from server 172.18.0.1:32636 (3d1ef865-c7be-41d8-8837-640693ffdd12), retrying (infinite attempts left) (Possible reason: The server is using SSL, and the client is not.), waiting 15.0 more seconds till next attempt.
marc@urknall:~$ getent hosts universum | cut -d' ' -f1
192.168.99.137

So the services bind to the wrong interface. Fix it on all servers, also remove the own hostname from /etc/hosts (it often points to 127.0.0.1 instead of to the external IP address):

for f in /etc/xos/xtreemfs/*.properties; do
  sudo sed -i 's,.*\(listen.address *= *\).*,\1'"$(hostname -I | cut -d' ' -f1)"',' $f
  sudo sed -i 's,.*\(hostname *= *\).*,\1'"$(hostname)"',' $f
done
sudo grep listen.address /etc/xos/xtreemfs/*.properties
sudo sed -i "/$(hostname)/d" /etc/hosts

Then restart the services.

LizardFS

Following the instructions, I install:

  • universum: master, chunkserver
  • urknall: chunkserver, metalogger
  • pulsar: chunkserver, metalogger
  • raum: chunkserver, cgi-server

Master Setup

sudo apt-get install lizardfs-master
sudo cp /usr/share/doc/lizardfs-master/examples/* /etc/lizardfs
echo "192.168.99.0/24 / rw,alldirs,maproot=0" | sudo tee -a /etc/lizardfs/mfsexports.cfg
sudo cp /var/lib/lizardfs/metadata.mfs.empty /var/lib/lizardfs/metadata.mfs
sudo systemctl enable lizardfs-master
sudo systemctl start lizardfs-master
Shadow Master
MASTER=universum
echo "PERSONALITY = shadow" | sudo tee -a mfsmaster.cfg
echo "MASTER_HOST = $MASTER" | sudo tee -a mfsmaster.cfg

Chunkserver Setup

MASTER=universum
sudo apt-get install lizardfs-chunkserver
sudo mkdir /var/lib/lizardfs/chunk
sudo chown lizardfs.lizardfs /var/lib/lizardfs/chunk
echo "/var/lib/lizardfs/chunk" | sudo tee /etc/lizardfs/mfshdd.cfg
echo "MASTER_HOST = $MASTER" | sudo tee /etc/lizardfs/mfschunkserver.cfg
sudo systemctl enable lizardfs-chunkserver
sudo systemctl start lizardfs-chunkserver

Metalogger Setup

MASTER=universum
sudo apt-get install lizardfs-metalogger
echo "MASTER_HOST = $MASTER" | sudo tee /etc/lizardfs/mfsmetalogger.cfg
sudo systemctl enable lizardfs-metalogger
sudo systemctl start lizardfs-metalogger

CGI Server

MASTER=universum
sudo apt-get install lizardfs-cgiserv

Administration

sudo apt-get install lizardfs-adm
man lizardfs-admin

Client

MASTER=universum
sudo apt-get install lizardfs-client
sudo mkdir /var/lizardfs
sudo mfsmount -H $MASTER /var/lizardfs
Add mount command to /etc/fstab:
echo "mfsmount /var/lizardfs fuse rw,mfsmaster=$MASTER,mfsdelayedinit 0 0" | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab

Tests

Copy data from glusterfs (from local filesystem):

time sudo rsync -avP /var/gluster/volumes/ /var/lizardfs/
  […]
(… still running …)

Cephs

tbd

Kommentare

[…] Do not use GlusterFS! It is extremely slow and very unstable! I am now going to remove my glusterfs and to evaluate new filesystems. […]